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Wound Ballistics
Kneubuehl
Editore
Springer
Anno
2011
Pagine
496
ISBN
9783642203558
180,00 €
I prezzi indicati possono subire variazioni poiché soggetti all'oscillazione dei cambi delle valute e/o agli aggiornamenti effettuati dagli Editori.
    • Interdisciplinary – THE reference work for wound ballistics
    • Fundamentals, specialized knowledge reference work
    • NEW: the latest diagnostic and simulation methods, plus the latest types of rounds
    • The practice and application of wound ballistics in forensic medicine, surgery (esp. emergency and combat surgery) and in international conventions

The definitive interdisciplinary reference work for wound ballistics

Fundamentals in Physics, arms and ammunition, ballistics

Simulating gunshot wounds: Virtopsy  – a virtual autopsy method, combining CT, MRT and surface scanning and Materials that reproduce the interaction of soft tissue, bone and blood vessels with a bullet that penetrates the body.

Wound ballistics for Short-range and long-range weapons, fragments, such as those from bombs and hand grenades, gas jets from blanks, gas weapons, etc., “Non-lethal” weapons as used by the police, in military operations or in urban settings

Specialist knowledge and reference detailed tables: ballistic tables for typical ammunition, ballistic values for numerous types of ammunition, including older types, materials properties, plus additional, hard-to-find data. Most tables are in both metric and U.S. units., an extensive trilingual glossary of specialized terminology in German, English and French

NEW: the latest diagnostic / simulation methods and the latest types of ammunition

The practice and application of wound ballistics in: forensic medicine, surgery – especially emergency and war surgery and international conventions

Globalized conflict zones, terrorism and crime – these issues affect a wider circle than just the armed forces and medical services abroad. Police officers, surgeons, forensics specialists and criminalists also need to be familiar with ballistics and gunshot wounds and must be able to assess the complex factors involved.

The practice and application of wound ballistics in forensic medicine. surgery – especially emergency and war surgery and International conventions.

Globalized conflict zones, terrorism and crime – these issues affect a wider circle than just the armed forces and medical services abroad. Police officers, surgeons, forensics specialists and criminalists also need to be familiar with ballistics and gunshot wounds and must be able to assess the complex factors involved.

 

Outline of contents
1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1
2 Basics .................................................................................................................. 3
Beat P. Kneubuehl
2.1 The physics of wound ballistics .................................................................. 3
2.2 Ammunition and weapons ......................................................................... 33
2.3 Ballistics .................................................................................................... 65
3 General wound ballistics ................................................................................ 87
Beat P. Kneubuehl
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 87
3.2 Processes in the wound channel; the temporary cavity ............................. 95
3.3 Simulants ................................................................................................. 136
3.4 Other approaches to simulation ............................................................... 154
4 Wound ballistics of bullets and fragments .................................................. 163
Beat P. Kneubuehl
4.1 The effectiveness of bullets ..................................................................... 163
4.2 Wound ballistics of handgun bullets ....................................................... 186
4.3 Wound ballistics of rifle bullets .............................................................. 212
4.4 Wound ballistics of fragments ................................................................. 232
4.5 “Non-lethal” projectiles ........................................................................... 240
5 Wound ballistics and forensic medicine ...................................................... 253
5.1 Conventional forensic medicine .............................................................. 253
Markus A. Rothschild
5.2 Modern graphical methods ...................................................................... 286
Michael J. Thali
5.3 Experimental reconstruction .................................................................... 291
Beat P. Kneubuehl, Michael J. Thali
6 Wound ballistics and surgery ....................................................................... 305
Robin M. Coupland
6.1 The historical connection between wound ballistics and surgery ........... 305
6.2 Wound ballistics and ballistic trauma – what’s the difference? .................. 306
6.3 Comparing simulated wounds and real wounds ...................................... 307
6.4 Clinical features of real wounds .............................................................. 312
VIII Outline of contents
6.5 The contribution of wound ballistics to the care of wounded people .... 313
6.6 Documenting ballistic trauma ................................................................ 317
7 Wound ballistics and international agreements ......................................... 321
Beat P. Kneubuehl
7.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 321
7.2 History of firearms and ammunition ..................................................... 321
7.3 International treaties .............................................................................. 334
Appendices
A Tables ............................................................................................................. 345
A.1 List of tables in the main text ................................................................ 345
A.2 Characteristics of materials ................................................................... 347
A.3 Calibre designations (metric system) .................................................... 348
A.4 Ballistic data for cartridges (metric system) .......................................... 350
A.5 Calibre designations (British/U.S. system) ............................................ 355
A.6 Ballistic data for cartridges (British/U.S. system) ................................. 357
A.7 Bullet designations ................................................................................ 362
A.8 Geometric data for selected bullets ....................................................... 363
A.9 Twist length, angle of twist and rotation ............................................... 364
A.10 Ballistics tables (metric system) ............................................................ 366
A.10 Ballistics tables (British/U.S. system) ................................................... 384
A.12 Shotguns and shot .................................................................................. 402
B Glossary .......................................................................................................... 405
B.1 English  German  French ............................................................... 405
B.2 German  English  French ............................................................... 425
B.3 French  German  English ............................................................... 443
C Bibliography .................................................................................................. 463
Photo credits .................................................................................................... 485
Index .................................................................................................................... 487
Detailed table of contents
Table of symbols ............................................................................................ XIX
Prefix symbols for decimal multiples and submultiples of SI units ........... XXIII
Conversions ................................................................................................. XXIII
1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1
2 Basics .................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 The physics of wound ballistics .................................................................. 3
2.1.1 Preliminary remarks ......................................................................... 3
2.1.2 Coordinates, systems of units and notation ...................................... 3
2.1.3 Mechanics ........................................................................................ 4
2.1.3.1 Kinematics ......................................................................... 4
2.1.3.2 Mass, momentum and force ............................................... 7
2.1.3.3 Work and energy ................................................................ 8
2.1.3.4 Rotation ............................................................................ 10
2.1.3.5 Laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum ... 11
2.1.3.6 Equations of motion ......................................................... 12
2.1.4 Fluid dynamics ............................................................................... 15
2.1.4.1 General ............................................................................. 15
2.1.4.2 Basic concepts in thermodynamics .................................. 15
2.1.4.3 Material characteristics .................................................... 18
2.1.4.4 Frictionless flow ............................................................... 21
2.1.4.5 Flow of a viscous fluid ..................................................... 23
2.1.5 Fluid jets ......................................................................................... 26
2.1.5.1 General ............................................................................. 26
2.1.5.2 Exhaust flow from a muzzle ............................................ 26
2.1.5.3 De Laval nozzles (converging-diverging nozzles) ........... 27
2.1.5.4 Jet velocity and energy ..................................................... 28
2.1.6 Measuring techniques for wound ballistics .................................... 29
2.1.6.1 General ............................................................................. 29
2.1.6.2 Dynamic phenomena ........................................................ 30
2.1.6.3 Physical values ................................................................. 32
2.2 Ammunition and weapons ......................................................................... 33
2.2.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 33
2.2.2 Ammunition ................................................................................... 34
X Detailed table of contents
2.2.2.1 The structure of a cartridge .............................................. 34
2.2.2.2 Types of ammunition ....................................................... 41
2.2.2.3 Blank and irritant rounds .................................................. 52
2.2.2.4 Fragmenting ammunition ................................................. 53
2.2.3 Weapons ......................................................................................... 55
2.2.3.1 Firearm design and typology ............................................ 55
2.2.3.2 Handguns ......................................................................... 59
2.2.3.3 Long weapons .................................................................. 61
2.2.3.4 Alarm pistols and revolvers ............................................. 65
2.3 Ballistics .................................................................................................... 65
2.3.1 Definitions ...................................................................................... 65
2.3.2 Interior ballistics ............................................................................. 66
2.3.2.1 General ............................................................................. 66
2.3.2.2 Powder combustion .......................................................... 66
2.3.2.3 The firing sequence .......................................................... 67
2.3.2.4 Interior ballistics calculations .......................................... 68
2.3.2.5 Energy balance ................................................................. 69
2.3.3 Muzzle phenomena ........................................................................ 69
2.3.3.1 Muzzle gas flow ............................................................... 69
2.3.3.2 Flash ................................................................................. 70
2.3.4 Exterior ballistics ........................................................................... 71
2.3.4.1 General; terms used .......................................................... 71
2.3.4.2 Exterior ballistics calculations ......................................... 72
2.3.4.3 Ballistics tables ................................................................ 73
2.3.4.4 Proper motion of a bullet ................................................. 73
2.3.4.5 Disturbances to the trajectory .......................................... 74
2.3.5 Stability and tractability ................................................................. 75
2.3.5.1 Definition of stability ....................................................... 75
2.3.5.2 Spin-stabilized projectiles ................................................ 76
2.3.5.3 Projectiles stabilized by air forces ................................... 78
2.3.5.4 Shoulder stabilization ....................................................... 78
2.3.5.5 Tractability ....................................................................... 79
2.3.5.6 Stability and ricochets ...................................................... 80
2.3.6 Fragment ballistics ......................................................................... 81
2.3.6.1 Acceleration of fragments ................................................ 81
2.3.6.2 Exterior ballistics of fragments ........................................ 82
2.3.7 Terminal ballistics models ............................................................. 83
2.3.7.1 General ............................................................................. 83
2.3.7.2 The plugging model ......................................................... 83
2.3.7.3 The displacement model (ductile failure) ........................ 84
2.3.7.4 Bullet passing through a thin layer of material ................ 84
Detailed table of contents XI
3 General wound ballistics ................................................................................ 87
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 87
3.1.1 General ........................................................................................... 87
3.1.2 The history of wound ballistics ...................................................... 88
3.1.3 Basic relationships ......................................................................... 93
3.2 Processes in the wound channel; the temporary cavity ............................. 95
3.2.1 Preliminary remarks ....................................................................... 95
3.2.1.1 The concept of the “temporary cavity” ............................ 95
3.2.1.2 Different ways of looking at wounding ........................... 95
3.2.1.3 Modelling wound ballistics processes.............................. 96
3.2.2 Motion and behaviour of a bullet ................................................... 97
3.2.2.1 Rifle bullets ...................................................................... 97
3.2.2.2 Handgun bullets ............................................................. 103
3.2.2.3 Fragments and fragment-like projectiles ........................ 104
3.2.2.4 Possible types of wound channel ................................... 107
3.2.2.5 Physical models .............................................................. 107
3.2.3 The temporary cavity ................................................................... 110
3.2.3.1 Phenomenology of the temporary cavity ....................... 110
3.2.3.2 Quantitative description of the temporary cavity ........... 117
3.2.3.3 Influence of impact conditions and bullet
characteristics ................................................................. 118
3.2.3.4 The effect of the sectional density of a bullet on the
shape of the temporary cavity ........................................ 122
3.2.4 The effect of bullet design on behaviour ...................................... 126
3.2.4.1 Categories of bullet ........................................................ 126
3.2.4.2 Deformation and fragmentation; general points ............ 126
3.2.4.3 Experimental results ....................................................... 128
3.2.5 Patterns in bullet wounds to bones ............................................... 131
3.2.6 Bullet temperature and sterility .................................................... 133
3.2.6.1 Historical background .................................................... 133
3.2.6.2 Bullet temperature .......................................................... 134
3.2.6.3 Bullets contaminated with bacteria ................................ 135
3.2.6.4 Burns due to bullets ........................................................ 136
3.3 Simulants ................................................................................................. 136
3.3.1 General ......................................................................................... 136
3.3.2 Gelatine ........................................................................................ 138
3.3.2.1 Characteristics and fabrication ....................................... 138
3.3.2.2 Fabrication of gelatine blocks; preparation for
experiments .................................................................... 138
3.3.2.3 Evaluating gelatine experiments .................................... 140
3.3.3 Glycerine soap (ballistic soap) ..................................................... 143
3.3.3.1 Characteristics and fabrication ....................................... 143
XII Detailed table of contents
3.3.3.2 Ageing ............................................................................ 144
3.3.3.3 Evaluating soap experiments ......................................... 145
3.3.3.4 Using soap to conduct measurements ............................ 146
3.3.4 Comparison between soap and gelatine ....................................... 147
3.3.4.1 General ........................................................................... 147
3.3.4.2 Availability, handling and measuring techniques .......... 147
3.3.4.3 Reaction to bullets .......................................................... 148
3.3.4.4 Which simulant for which purpose? .............................. 150
3.3.4.5 Connection between the analysis methods ..................... 151
3.3.5 Bone ............................................................................................. 151
3.3.5.1 General ........................................................................... 151
3.3.5.2 Hollow bones ................................................................. 152
3.3.5.3 Modelling the head ......................................................... 153
3.3.6 Other simulants ............................................................................ 153
3.4 Other approaches to simulation ............................................................... 154
3.4.1 Experiments on animals and cadavers ......................................... 154
3.4.1.1 Animals .......................................................................... 154
3.4.1.2 Cadavers ......................................................................... 156
3.4.1.3 Cell cultures ................................................................... 157
3.4.2 Physical/mathematical models ..................................................... 157
3.4.2.1 General ........................................................................... 157
3.4.2.2 SELLIER’s velocity profiles............................................. 158
3.4.2.3 Computer Man ............................................................... 159
3.4.2.4 The “Verwundungsmodell Schütze” (VeMo-S) ............ 160
4 Wound ballistics of bullets and fragments .................................................. 163
4.1 The effectiveness of bullets ..................................................................... 163
4.1.1 Effectiveness versus effect ........................................................... 163
4.1.1.1 Definitions ...................................................................... 163
4.1.1.2 Factors that contribute to the effect of a bullet .............. 163
4.1.2 Measures of effectiveness ............................................................ 165
4.1.2.1 Historical background .................................................... 165
4.1.2.2 The “stopping power” fallacy ........................................ 166
4.1.2.3 Traditional measures of effectiveness ............................ 167
4.1.2.4 Summary and conclusions ............................................. 176
4.1.3 Determining the effectiveness of a bullet ..................................... 178
4.1.3.1 Definition of effectiveness ............................................. 178
4.1.3.2 Measuring effectiveness ................................................. 179
4.1.4 Military effectiveness criteria....................................................... 179
4.1.4.1 Definitions of effectiveness ........................................... 179
4.1.4.2 Probability of incapacitation .......................................... 181
Detailed table of contents XIII
4.2 Wound ballistics of handgun bullets ....................................................... 186
4.2.1 Penetration depth of handgun bullets and ability to
pass through gelatine, soap, muscle and bone ............... 186
4.2.1.1 General ........................................................................... 186
4.2.1.2 Penetration depth in gelatine, soap and muscle ............. 187
4.2.1.3 Penetration capacity in bone .......................................... 195
4.2.1.4 Threshold velocities for eyes ......................................... 200
4.2.2 Characteristics of handgun bullets ............................................... 201
4.2.2.1 General ........................................................................... 201
4.2.2.2 Bullets with good penetration properties ....................... 202
4.2.2.3 Bullets designed for maximum effectiveness ................ 202
4.2.2.4 Unconventional bullet design ......................................... 207
4.2.3 Gas and fluid jets as projectiles .................................................... 208
4.2.3.1 General ........................................................................... 208
4.2.3.2 Liquid jets ...................................................................... 209
4.2.3.3 Gas jets ........................................................................... 209
4.2.3.4 The effects of gas jets in the case of gas and alarm
pistols ............................................................................. 210
4.3 Wound ballistics of rifle bullets .............................................................. 212
4.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 212
4.3.2 Remote effects .............................................................................. 213
4.3.2.1 General ........................................................................... 213
4.3.2.2 Shock waves ................................................................... 214
4.3.2.3 Biological/pathological consequences of shock waves . 218
4.3.2.4 Pressure changes in blood vessels .................................. 223
4.3.2.5 The effects of pressure pulses on blood vessels ............. 224
4.3.2.6 Bone fractures at locations remote from the wound
channel ........................................................................... 225
4.3.3 Wound ballistic characteristics of rifle bullets ............................. 226
4.3.3.1 Bullets designed for military use ................................... 226
4.3.3.2 Hunting bullets ............................................................... 228
4.3.3.3 Shot and slugs ................................................................ 229
4.4 Wound ballistics of fragments ................................................................. 232
4.4.1 General ......................................................................................... 232
4.4.1.1 Frequency of fragment wounds ...................................... 232
4.4.1.2 Wounds caused by fragments and similar projectiles .... 232
4.4.2 Equations of motion and energy for fragments ............................ 234
4.4.2.1 Hypotheses ..................................................................... 234
4.4.2.2 The geometrical form of the wound channel ................. 234
4.4.2.3 Equation of energy and motion ...................................... 235
4.4.2.4 Entry wound diameter and penetration depth ................ 235
4.4.3 Experimental verification of the models ...................................... 236
XIV Detailed table of contents
4.4.3.1 Method ........................................................................... 236
4.4.3.2 Entry wound diameter .................................................... 236
4.4.3.3 Penetration depth ............................................................ 238
4.4.3.4 Comparison with other studies ....................................... 239
4.4.3.5 Applications ................................................................... 240
4.5 “Non-lethal” projectiles ........................................................................... 240
4.5.1 General ......................................................................................... 240
4.5.2 Projectile design ........................................................................... 241
4.5.2.1 Projectiles with low sectional density ............................ 241
4.5.2.2 Expanding bullets ........................................................... 241
4.5.2.3 Rubber shot .................................................................... 244
4.5.2.4 Special projectiles for handguns .................................... 246
4.5.3 Wound ballistics of “non-lethal” projectiles ................................ 246
4.5.3.1 Penetrating projectiles .................................................... 246
4.5.3.2 Non-penetrating projectiles ............................................ 248
4.5.4 Dangerosity of projectiles ............................................................ 250
4.5.4.1 Criteria of dangerosity ................................................... 250
4.5.4.2 Determining hazard areas ............................................... 251
4.5.4.3 Danger area for persons wearing protective equipment . 251
5 Wound ballistics and forensic medicine ...................................................... 253
5.1 Conventional forensic medicine .............................................................. 253
5.1.1 General ......................................................................................... 253
5.1.2 Crime-scene investigation ............................................................ 253
5.1.2.1 Bullet damage at the crime scene ................................... 253
5.1.2.2 Examination of the body at the scene ............................ 254
5.1.2.3 Bloodstain pattern analysis ............................................ 255
5.1.3 Morphology of entry and exit wounds ......................................... 257
5.1.3.1 Entry wounds ................................................................. 257
5.1.3.2 Exit wounds .................................................................... 260
5.1.3.3 Grazing shots .................................................................. 261
5.1.3.4 Indicators of muzzle-target distance .............................. 262
5.1.4 The wound channel ...................................................................... 265
5.1.4.1 Wound morphology ....................................................... 265
5.1.4.2 The relationship between the wound channel and the
direction of shot ............................................................. 266
5.1.5 Bullet wounds to the head ............................................................ 267
5.1.5.1 Brain injuries .................................................................. 267
5.1.5.2 Skull injuries .................................................................. 268
5.1.6 Bullet wounds to the trunk ........................................................... 270
5.1.6.1 The ribcage ..................................................................... 270
5.1.6.2 Abdomen ........................................................................ 271
5.1.7 Bullet wounds to bones ................................................................ 272
Detailed table of contents XV
5.1.7.1 General ........................................................................... 272
5.1.7.2 Flat bones ....................................................................... 273
5.1.7.3 Long hollow bones ......................................................... 274
5.1.7.4 Vertebrae ........................................................................ 275
5.1.8 Peculiarities of shotgun wounds ................................................... 275
5.1.8.1 General ........................................................................... 275
5.1.8.2 Morphology of entry wounds ......................................... 276
5.1.8.3 Internal morphology of shotgun wounds ....................... 276
5.1.9 Causes of death and incapacitation .............................................. 277
5.1.9.1 Causes of death .............................................................. 277
5.1.9.2 Incapacitation ................................................................. 279
5.1.10 Particular projectiles ..................................................................... 281
5.1.10.1 Gas-powered weapons ................................................... 281
5.1.10.2 Alarm pistols and weapons firing irritants ..................... 282
5.1.10.3 Arrow wounds ................................................................ 283
5.1.10.4 Captive bolt pistols and bolt-firing tools ........................ 284
5.2 Modern graphical methods ...................................................................... 286
5.2.1 Surface documentation ................................................................. 286
5.2.2 Radiological documentation ......................................................... 286
5.2.3 Combining surface and radiological documentation .................... 289
5.2.4 Documenting crime scenes using modern graphics techniques ... 289
5.3 Experimental reconstruction .................................................................... 291
5.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 291
5.3.2 Reconstructing shooting incidents ............................................... 292
5.3.2.1 Preliminary remarks ....................................................... 292
5.3.2.2 Points to bear in mind .................................................... 292
5.3.2.3 Examples ........................................................................ 293
5.3.3 Blunt force .................................................................................... 296
5.3.3.1 Equipment used and experimental options .................... 296
5.3.3.2 Examples ........................................................................ 297
5.3.4 Using virtopsy in practice ............................................................ 298
5.3.4.1 Documentation and visualization ................................... 298
5.3.4.2 Example ......................................................................... 301
6 Wound ballistics and surgery ....................................................................... 305
6.1 The historical connection between wound ballistics and surgery ........... 305
6.2 Wound ballistics and ballistic trauma – what’s the difference? .................. 306
6.3 Comparing simulated wounds and real wounds ...................................... 307
6.3.1 Preliminary remarks ..................................................................... 307
6.3.2 Case studies .................................................................................. 307
6.3.3 Conclusions .................................................................................. 311
6.4 Clinical features of real wounds .............................................................. 312
6.5 The contribution of wound ballistics to the care of wounded people. ..... 313
XVI Detailed table of contents
6.5.1 The “wound profile” .................................................................... 313
6.5.2 What causes tissue damage? ........................................................ 313
6.5.3 Gas in tissues on a clinical x-ray .................................................. 314
6.5.4 The “hot bullet” theory ................................................................. 314
6.5.5 Long bone fractures ...................................................................... 315
6.5.6 Cranio-cerebral wounds ............................................................... 316
6.5.7 Unresolved issues ......................................................................... 316
6.6 Documenting ballistic trauma .................................................................. 317
6.6.1 Overview ...................................................................................... 317
6.6.2 Scoring wounds in the field .......................................................... 318
6.6.3 The role of surgeons and the application of international
humanitarian law .......................................................................... 319
6.6.4 Documenting ballistic trauma – a wider responsibility for health
professionals? ............................................................................... 319
7 Wound ballistics and international agreements ......................................... 321
7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 321
7.2 History of firearms and ammunition ....................................................... 321
7.2.1 General ......................................................................................... 321
7.2.2 The development of ammunition ................................................. 322
7.2.2.1 The situation in 1800 ...................................................... 322
7.2.2.2 The elongated bullet ....................................................... 322
7.2.2.3 The primer ...................................................................... 323
7.2.2.4 The metal cartridge ........................................................ 323
7.2.2.5 Smokeless powder .......................................................... 324
7.2.2.6 Bullets ............................................................................ 325
7.2.2.7 “Dum-dum” bullets ........................................................ 326
7.2.3 The development of firearms in the 19th century ......................... 329
7.2.3.1 Muzzle loaders and their problems ................................ 329
7.2.3.2 Breech-loaders ............................................................... 329
7.2.3.3 Repeaters ........................................................................ 330
7.2.3.4 Handguns ....................................................................... 330
7.2.4 The 20th century ............................................................................ 331
7.2.4.1 Ammunition ................................................................... 331
7.2.4.2 Weapons ......................................................................... 333
7.3 International treaties ................................................................................ 334
7.3.1 Basic principles ............................................................................ 334
7.3.2 The instruments ............................................................................ 334
7.3.2.1 The original Geneva Convention (1864) ....................... 334
7.3.2.2 The St Petersburg Declaration (1868) ............................ 335
7.3.2.3 The Brussels Conference (1874) .................................... 335
7.3.2.4 The Hague Convention (1899) ....................................... 336
Detailed table of contents XVII
7.3.2.5 The Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of
War on Land (The Hague, 1907) ................................... 337
7.3.2.6 The Geneva Conventions of 1949 .................................. 337
7.3.2.7 The 1977 protocols additional to the Geneva
Conventions ................................................................... 338
7.3.2.8 The United Nations Conference (Geneva, 1980) ........... 339
7.3.2.9 The relevance of international instruments to wound
ballistics ......................................................................... 339
7.3.3 A basis for formulating future instruments of international
humanitarian law .......................................................................... 340
7.3.3.1 The disadvantages of the wording of existing
conventions .................................................................... 340
7.3.3.2 Projectile-independent assessment processes ................ 341
7.3.3.3 Formulation of standards ............................................... 342
Appendices
A Tables ............................................................................................................. 345
A.1 List of tables in the main text .................................................................. 345
A.2 Characteristics of materials ..................................................................... 347
A.2.1 Fluids and materials that behave like fluids ................................. 347
A.2.2 Solid materials .............................................................................. 347
A.3 Calibre designations (metric system) ...................................................... 348
A.3.1 Handguns ...................................................................................... 348
A.3.2 Military rifles ............................................................................... 349
A.3.3 Hunting and sporting rifles ........................................................... 349
A.4 Ballistic data for cartridges (metric system) ............................................ 350
A.4.1 Handgun cartridges ...................................................................... 350
A.4.2 Military ammunition .................................................................... 351
A.4.3 Hunting and sporting ammunition ............................................... 352
A.4.4 Pre-1900 weapons and ammunition ............................................. 353
A.4.5 Ballistic performance of certain bows and crossbows ................. 354
A.4.5.1 Technical data ................................................................ 354
A.4.5.2 Ballistic data ................................................................... 354
A.4.6 Ballistic data for various types of projectiles used in sport ......... 354
A.5 Calibre designations (British/U.S. system) ............................................. 355
A.5.1 Handguns ...................................................................................... 355
A.5.2 Military rifles ............................................................................... 356
A.5.3 Hunting and sporting rifles ........................................................... 356
A.6 Ballistic data for cartridges (British/U.S. system) ................................... 357
A.6.1 Handgun cartridges ...................................................................... 357
XVIII Detailed table of contents
A.6.2 Military ammunition .................................................................... 358
A.6.3 Hunting and sporting ammunition ............................................... 359
A.6.4 Pre-1900 weapons and ammunition ........................................... 360
A.6.5 Ballistic performance of certain bows and crossbows ............... 361
A.4.6.1 Technical data .............................................................. 361
A.4.6.2 Ballistic data ................................................................ 361
A.6.6 Ballistic data for various types of projectiles used in sport ....... 361
A.7 Bullet designations ................................................................................ 362
A.7.1 Bullet form ................................................................................. 362
A.7.2 Bullet material ............................................................................ 362
A.7.3 Bullet structure ........................................................................... 362
A.8 Geometric data for selected bullets ....................................................... 363
A.8.1 Military bullets ........................................................................... 363
A.8.2 Other bullets ............................................................................... 363
A.9 Twist length, angle of twist and rotation ................................................. 364
A.9.1 Handguns ................................................................................... 364
A.9.2 Rifles .......................................................................................... 364
A.9.2.1 Military rifles ............................................................... 364
A.9.2.2 Hunting and sporting rifles .......................................... 365
A.10 Ballistics tables (metric system) ............................................................ 366
A.10.1 Notes .......................................................................................... 366
A.10.2 Handguns ................................................................................... 366
A.10.3 Rifles .......................................................................................... 372
A.10.4 Old rifles .................................................................................... 379
A.10.5 Various ....................................................................................... 381
A.11 Ballistics tables (British/U.S. system) ................................................... 384
A.11.1 Notes .......................................................................................... 384
A.11.2 Handguns ................................................................................... 384
A.11.3 Rifles .......................................................................................... 390
A.11.4 Old rifles .................................................................................... 397
A.11.5 Various ....................................................................................... 399
A.12 Shotguns and shot .................................................................................. 402
A.12.1 Calibres of shotgun barrels ........................................................ 402
A.12.2 Ballistic data for shot pellets ...................................................... 402
A.12.3 Designations for buckshot pellets .............................................. 402
A.12.4 Designations for normal shotgun pellets: British/U.S. system .. 403
A.12.5 Designations for normal shotgun pellets: metric system ........... 403
B Glossary .......................................................................................................... 405
B.1 English  German  French ................................................................. 405
B.2 German  English  French ................................................................. 425
B.3 French  German  English ................................................................. 443
Table of symbols XIX
C Bibliography .................................................................................................. 463
General ............................................................................................................ 463
Articles and papers .......................................................................................... 465
Photo credits .................................................................................................... 485
Index .................................................................................................................... 487
Table of symbols
This book uses SI units and units derived from them (some tables are also printed
in British/U.S. units). Dimensionless quantities are indicated by [-]. Where no
dimension is possible for a quantity, the corresponding space is left blank.
A Area [m2]
C General proportionality factor (e.g. specific heat capacity)
C/L Measure of effectiveness (CARANTA and LEGRAIN)
CD Drag coefficient [-]
Cdr Pressure coefficient [-]
CF Coefficient of friction [-]
CL Lift force coefficient [-]
CM Overturning moment coefficient [-]
Cp Pressure coefficient [-]
D Plate thickness (terminal ballistics) [m]
E Energy [J]
E Energy density [J/mm2]
Eab Wounding potential (energy deposited per cm travelled) [J/cm]
Egr Threshold energy density [J/mm2]
Ea Impact energy [J]
Eab Energy transferred [J]
Ead Entry energy (the energy of the projectile as it enters a layer,
having passed through another) [J]
Edr Pressure energy [J]
Eds Energy expended in passing through a layer [J]
Ee Exit energy [J]
Egr Threshold energy [J]
EKE Expected kinetic energy [J]
Ekin Kinetic energy [J]
Emech Mechanical energy (= Ekin + Epot + Erot) [J]
Epot Potential energy [J]
Erot Energy of rotation [J]
Erst Residual energy of the projectile after it has exited the target (e.g.
the body) [J]

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