Highly illustrated schematic diagrams will assist reader in practicalities of administering TENS
Disucsses the current evidence base for the use of TENs
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a technique that delivers mild electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to reduce pain. TENS is used by practitioners throughout the world to manage painful conditions and TENS equipment can be purchased by the general public so that they can self-administer treatment. There are thousands of experimental and clinical research studies published on TENS and related techniques yet there is uncertainty about the best way to administer TENS in clinical practice. This is because currents used during TENS can be administered in a variety of ways and the findings of research studies have been inconclusive.
This book provides guidance on how best to use TENS based on an evaluation of current research evidence. The book covers what TENS is, how it works, and safe and appropriate clinical techniques for many conditions including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis and cancer pain. It also offers solutions to the problems faced by researchers when trying to design clinical trials on TENS.
Accessibility written, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) provides a comprehensive coverage of research issues and findings about TENS and will essential readings for healthcare professionals, practitioners and students.
2: TENS for pain management
3: TENS equipment, techniques and biophysical principles
4: Appropriate electrode sites and electrical characteristics for TENS
5: Contraindications, precautions and adverse events
6: Evaluating TENS on a new patient - the supervised trial
7: Practicalities of using TENS for specific conditions and situations
8: Clinical research on the efficacy of TENS
9: Mechanism of action of TENS
10: The use of TENS for non-painful conditions
11: TENS-like devices
12: Future directions