Deformity Surgery Principles: The epidemiology of adult spinal deformity & the aging population. - Classification scheme. - Indications for surgery. - Sagittal balance. - Lumbopelvic parameters. - Importance of the fractional curve. - Importance of the fractional curve. - Radiation safety. - Impact of MIS surgery on costs. - Percutaneous Segmental Fixation: Fluoroscopic techniques. - Image guidance. - Nuances of Thoracolumbar screw placement. - Rod contouring, passage, and connection. - Percutaneous pelvic screw fixation. - Managing osteoporotic bone. - Use of cement in MIS deformity surgery. - Posterior Approaches: Interbody cage options. - Multi-level TLIF for spinal deformity. - Expandable cages for thoracic spinal deformity. - Expandable cages for lumbar spinal deformity. - Lumbar endoscopic fusion. - Osteotomy techniques. - Lateral Approaches: Thoracoscopic approaches. - Role of neuromonitoring. - Single incision approach to the lumbar spine. - Dual incision approach to the lumbar spine. - Which side to approach from? - Stand-alone lateral surgery for deformity. - Thoracic interbody surgery. - Complications of the lateral approach. - Dealing with the Lumbo-Pelvic Junction: MIS-TLIF for fusing the lumbosacral junction. - Mini-open ALIF for fusing the lumbosacral junction. - Trans-sacral interbody fusion as an adjunct to anchoring constructs at the lumbosacral junction. - Posterior trans-sacral fusion. - Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion. - Achieving Intersegmental Arthodesis: Bone graft extenders. - Bone Morphogenetic Proteins. - Minimally invasive Wiltse approach posterolateral fusion. - Facet joint fusion. - Future Directions.