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LIBRERIA STUDIUM
Libreria medica internazionale
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LIBRERIA STUDIUM
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Clinical Facial Analysis, 2nd ed
Elements, Principles, and Techniques
Meneghini, Biondi
Editore
Springer
Anno
2012
Pagine
219
ISBN
9783642272271
140,00 €
I prezzi indicati possono subire variazioni poiché soggetti all'oscillazione dei cambi delle valute e/o agli aggiornamenti effettuati dagli Editori.
  • Presents a straightforward, practical, and non-instrumental method of clinical facial analysis in preparation for treatment
  • Adopts a multidisciplinary approach, with emphasis on the relationship between different parts of the face
  • Thoroughly updated edition, including new material

This richly illustrated book presents a straightforward non-instrumental method of clinical facial analysis in preparation for aesthetic surgery, orthognathic surgery, and orthodontic treatments. The opening chapters discuss various practical aspects of facial examination and photography. The role of precise and standardized three-dimensional photographic documentation of the face is highlighted, and a lighting technique developed by the authors is presented. Analysis of different regions of the face and dentofacial deformities is then discussed in a series of detailed chapters. At the end of each of these chapters, multiple-choice checklists are included that will help the reader to perform step-by-step regional analysis. Further chapters consider the aging face and post-treatment follow-up. Exercises on clinical photography and analysis are provided, and advice and quotations from experts are also included. Important features of the book are its multidisciplinary approach and the emphasis placed on the relationship between different parts of the face. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and includes a new chapter on recording and documentation relating specifically to aesthetic facial surgery.

 

Introduction: Facial Analysis – Why, When, and How . . . . . . . . . . . xv
1 Approaching the Patient for Direct and Photographic
Facial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 The Single Room Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 The Interview Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 The Clinical Examination Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 The Clinical Photography Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 The First Consultation Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 The First Ten Minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 The Entrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.3 The Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.4 The Direct Clinical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.5 The Clinical Photographic Documentation . . . . . . . 6
1.2.6 Final Communications and Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3 The Time Spent in Organizing the Next Consultation . . . . . . 6
1.4 The Second (and Successive) Consultation Approach . . . . . 7
1.5 How to Enhance Patient/Physician Communication . . . . . . . 7
1.6 The Single Operator Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Lighting Techniques for Clinical Facial Photography . . . . . . . . 9
2.1 Lighting Techniques for Clinical Facial Photography . . . . . . 9
2.2 Equipment and Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3.1 Point, Line, and Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.2 A “Natural” Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.3 Problems with Two or More Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.4 Avoid a False Asymmetric Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.5 The Importance of Soft Box Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.6 Avoid Shadows on the Background Panel . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.7 Advantages of Ceiling-Mounted Equipment . . . . . . 14
2.4 The Seven Rules of Multiple Shots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
viii Contents
3 Views of Clinical Facial Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1 Natural Head Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2 How to Obtain Life-Size Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3 The Poster “Views of Clinical Facial Photography” . . . . . . . 18
3.4 The Shooting of a Complete Set of Clinical
Facial Photographs (Step-by-Step Description) . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.4.1 Accompanying the Patient in the Photo Area . . . . . 19
3.4.2 The Eleven Basic Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.4.3 The Five Nasal Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.4.4 The Five Orthognathic/Orthodontic Views . . . . . . . 24
3.4.5 The Seven Eye Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.4.6 The Four Ear Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.5 Final Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4 The “Facial Points of Interest” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1 Eye Movements and Visual Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 From the Regions of Interest
to the Facial Points of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.3 A Different – Visual – Approach
to Facial Deformities and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.4 Adding Lines to the Facial Points of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.5 Illusion in Clinical Facial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5 Basic Facial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.1 Regions of the Face and Neck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.2 Basic Qualitative Facial Analysis (Without Measurements) . 42
5.2.1 Frontal View Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.2.2 Basal View Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.2.3 Oblique Views Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.2.4 Profi le View Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.3 The Facial Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.4 The Supporting Skeleton Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.5 Facial Soft Tissue Envelope
Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.6 Facial Soft Tissue Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.7 The Overweight Patient, Facial Analysis,
and Surgical Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.8 From Specifi c to General: A Reversed
Approach to Basic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.9 Basic Analysis: Preferred Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6 Forehead, Eyebrows, and Eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.1 Forehead Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.2 Eyebrow, Eye, and Lids Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.2.1 The Female Attractive Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Contents ix
6.3 Upper Lid Crease Malposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.4 A Closer Look at the Upper Lateral Orbital Quadrant . . . . . 64
6.5 Eyebrow Malposition and Inappropriate Expressions . . . . . . 64
6.6 Suspect and Search for the Early Signs
of Aging in the Upper Third of the Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.7 Forehead, Eyebrows, and Eyes Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . 67
6.8 Forehead, Eyebrows, and Eyes:
Preferred Terms Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7 Nasal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.1 Points, Lines, and Subunits of the External Nose . . . . . . . . . 73
7.2 Direct and Photographic Clinical Analysis
for Nasal Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.2.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.2.2 Nasal Upper Third Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.2.3 Nasal Middle Third Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.2.4 Nasal Lower Third Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7.3 The Close Relationship Between
the Nose and the Upper Lip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.4 Nasal Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.4.1 Nasal Analysis Checklist:
General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.4.2 Nasal Analysis Checklist:
Upper Third of the Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.4.3 Nasal Analysis Checklist:
Middle Third of the Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.4.4 Nasal Analysis Checklist:
Lower Third of the Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.5 The Nasal Analysis Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.6 Cephalometric Nasal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.6.1 The Method of Byrd and Hobar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.7 Nasal Airway Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.8 Nasal Analysis: Preferred Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8 Lips, Teeth, Chin, and Smile Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
8.1 Dental Occlusion: Basic Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
8.2 Upper Frontal Teeth Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.3 Lips Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.3.1 The Attractive Female Lips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.4 Smile Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
8.4.1 The Attractive Female Smile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
8.4.2 The “No-Smile Patient” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
8.5 Chin Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
8.6 Lips, Teeth, Chin, and Smile Analysis Checklists . . . . . . . . . 119
8.6.1 Dental Occlusion Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
8.6.2 Upper Frontal Teeth Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . 121
x Contents
8.6.3 Lips Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
8.6.4 Posed Smile Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
8.6.5 Chin Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
8.7 Lips, Teeth, Chin, and Smile Analysis:
Preferred Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9 Dentofacial Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.1 The Basic Components of Dentofacial Deformities . . . . . . . 125
9.1.1 Anterior Vertical Excess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.1.2 Anterior Vertical Defi ciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.1.3 Class III Sagittal Discrepancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9.1.4 Class II Sagittal Discrepancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9.1.5 Transverse Discrepancies
and Asymmetry of the Jaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.1.6 The Immense Number of Combinations
of Different Types and Grades of the
Basic Components of Facial Deformities . . . . . . . . 132
9.2 Direct and Photographic Clinical Analysis
for Dentofacial Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.3 The Youthful Neck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.4 Intraoral and Dental Cast Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
9.5 Cephalometric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.5.1 A Personal View on
Radiographic Cephalometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.5.2 Essential Radiographic Cephalometry . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.6 Dental Cephalometric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.6.1 Interincisal Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.6.2 Angle Between the Upper Central
Incisors and the Maxillary Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.6.3 Angle Between the Lower Incisors
and the Mandibular Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.6.4 Protrusion of Maxillary Incisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.7 Skeletal Cephalometric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.7.1 Maxilla to Cranial Base
Anteroposterior Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.7.2 Mandible to Cranial Base
Anteroposterior Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.7.3 Mandible to Maxilla Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.8 Soft Tissue Cephalometric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.8.1 Vertical Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.8.2 Nasofacial Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.8.3 Nasomental Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.8.4 Mentocervical Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.8.5 Submental–Neck Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.8.6 Subnasal Vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.8.7 Nasolabial Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.9 The Points, Lines, and Angles Diffi cult to Trace . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.10 The Maxillomandibular Complex Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Contents xi
9.11 The Role of Dentofacial Deformities
in Premature Aging Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.12 Dentofacial Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.13 Dentofacial Deformities: Preferred Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
10 The Aging Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
10.1 Structural Factors of Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
10.2 Soft Tissue Quality and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
10.3 Soft Tissue Quantity and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.4 Soft Tissue Dynamics and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.5 Skeletal Supporting Framework and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.6 Recognizing Aging in the Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.6.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.7 Recognizing the Signs of Facial Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.7.1 Forehead Transverse Furrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.7.2 Frown Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
10.7.3 Temporal Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
10.7.4 Eyebrow Ptosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
10.7.5 Upper Eyelid Hooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.7.6 Crow’s Feet and Eyelid Wrinkles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.7.7 Lateral Canthal Bowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.7.8 Scleral Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.7.9 Baggy Lower Eyelid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.7.10 Tear Trough Deformity (Palpebrojugal Fold)
and Palpebral Malar Groove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
10.7.11 Malar Bags (Festoons, “Cheek Bags”) . . . . . . . . . . 165
10.7.12 Nasolabial Fold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
10.7.13 Preauricular Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
10.7.14 Lip Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
10.7.15 Horizontal Upper Lip Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
10.7.16 Vertical Lengthening of the Upper Lip
and Ptosis of the Lip Commissures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
10.7.17 Corner of the Mouth Lines
(Commissural Lines) and “Marionette” Lines . . . . . 167
10.7.18 Jowls and Prejowl Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.7.19 Witch’s Chin Deformity (Ptotic Chin) . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.7.20 Platysma Bands and Loss
of Cervicomental Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.7.21 Horizontal Neck Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.7.22 Ptotic Submandibular Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
10.8 Recognizing Nasal Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
10.9 Recognizing Aging in the Oral Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
10.10 The Aging Face Analysis Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
10.11 The Aging Face: Preferred Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
10.11.1 Wrinkles, Mimetic Lines, Mimetic
Furrows, and Folds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
10.11.2 Other Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
xii Contents
11 Continuing Facial Analysis Utilizing
Four Images by Man Ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.1 Man Ray’s Unconventional Oblique Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
11.2 Man Ray’s Asymmetrical Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
12 Continuing Facial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
12.1 Meet the Patient the Day Before the Operation . . . . . . . . . . . 179
12.2 Continuing Facial Analysis in the Operating Room . . . . . . . 180
12.2.1 The Basic Preoperative Documents
Are Hanging up in the Operating Room . . . . . . . . . 180
12.2.2 Problems Related to General Anesthesia
and Patient Positioning During Facial Surgery . . . . 180
12.3 The Intraoperative and Postoperative
Procedure Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
12.4 The Continuing Facial Analysis
in the Early Postoperative Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
12.5 The Continuing Facial Analysis
in the Late Postoperative Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
13 Aesthetic Facial Surgery: First Consultation Notes, Essential
Medical History, and Clinical Diary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
13.1 General Characteristics of AFS Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
13.2 Front and Back Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
13.2.1 Frontal, Oblique, Profi le, and Basal
Full Face View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
13.2.2 Nasal Area Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
13.2.3 Facial Aging and Facelift Incision
Line Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
13.2.4 Eyebrow and Eyelid Area Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
13.2.5 Lip and Smile Area Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
13.2.6 Ear Area Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
13.3 Left-Hand Side of Inside Page of the AFS Folder . . . . . . . . . 190
13.4 The Right-Hand Internal Page of the AFS Folder . . . . . . . . . 200
14 Exercises in Clinical Photography and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
14.1 Exercise 1: Orientate the Face
in the Natural Head Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
14.2 Exercise 2: Perform a Complete
Session of Clinical Facial Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.3 Exercise 3: Find and Compare
the Facial Points of Interest in Two Different Subjects . . . . . 202
14.4 Exercise 4: Perform a Systematic,
Step-by-Step Facial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
15 Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
15.1 Errors in Patient Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
15.2 Enhance Preoperative, Intraoperative,
and Postoperative Patient Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
15.3 The Normal-Average Face and the Beautiful Face . . . . . . . . 204
Contents xiii
15.4 Forehead Aesthetics and Preoperative Assessment . . . . . . . . 204
15.5 Eyelid Aesthetics and Preoperative Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 204
15.6 Understanding the Nasal Airway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
15.7 Planning Rhinoplasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
15.8 From Nasal Analysis to Nasal Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
15.9 The Six Keys to Optimal Dental Occlusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
15.10 The Smile Analysis: An Orthodontic Point of View . . . . . . . 205
15.11 Clinical Cephalometric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
15.12 Clinical Analysis of Dentofacial Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
15.13 Proportion and Disproportion in Dentofacial Deformity . . . . 205
15.14 How the Skin Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
15.15 How the Face Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
16 Surround Yourself with Experts
(and Other Important Advice for a Constructive
and Creative Surgical Practice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
16.1 Surround Yourself with Experts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
16.2 The Cost of Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
16.3 John F. Kennedy on Myth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
16.4 Jack Sheen: “A Psychiatrist Once Told Me…” . . . . . . . . . . . 208
16.5 The 20 Rules of Surgical Planning
(or the “Think in Terms of…” Planning Series) . . . . . . . . . . 208
16.6 David Sarver on “Diagnosis by Procedure” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
16.7 The Three Most Powerful Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
16.8 The Priority List and the 80/20 Rule (Pareto’s Law) . . . . . . . 209
16.9 Professional Success Is a Consequence of Interest,
Joy, and the Desire for Future Happiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
17 Beauty Is Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Beauty Is Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
It Is Built, but It Destructs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

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