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Tumors of the Fetus and Infant

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Autore: Isaacs
Editore: Springer
Anno: 2013
Pagine: 334
ISBN: 9783642316197
Prezzo: 180,00€
I prezzi indicati possono subire variazioni poiché soggetti all'oscillazione dei cambi delle valute e/o agli aggiornamenti effettuati dagli Editori.
  • Concise, easy to use reference source of value for not only pathologists but also clinicians, resident physicians, and other medical specialists
  • Presents and discusses the clinical presentation and features, imaging studies, pathology (gross and microscopic features), and prognosis for each tumor entity
  • First atlas to focus solely on tumors in the fetus, neonate, and infant

Over the past two decades, the remarkable advances in imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and fast or ultra-fast MRI, have led to the diagnosis of an increasing number of tumors at the prenatal stage. This revised, abundantly illustrated second edition of Tumors of the Fetus and Infant: An Atlas presents an up-to-date account of the clinical and pathological features of neoplastic disease and tumor-like conditions in the fetus, neonate, and infant and discusses major tumor studies and cases from throughout the world. The full range of tumors is covered, with each chapter reviewing the incidence, clinical findings, cytogenetics, pathology, radiology, treatment, and prognosis. The goal is to enable the reader to gain a clear understanding of these lesions so that a correct diagnosis can be achieved and appropriate treatment, initiated. This atlas will also serve as a concise and easy to use reference source not only for pathologists but also for clinicians, resident physicians, medical students, and other medical specialists

 

xv
Contents
1 General Survey ....................................................................................................... 1
1.1 General Survey ............................................................................................... 1
1.2 Incidence ......................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Tumors Occurring in Patients with Congenital Malformations
and Syndromes ................................................................................................ 3
References ................................................................................................................ 3
2 Germ Cell Tumors ................................................................................................. 5
2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Cytogenetics ................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Teratoma ......................................................................................................... 7
2.3.1 Clinical Findings ................................................................................. 13
2.3.2 Pathology ............................................................................................. 13
2.4 Fetus-in-Fetu ................................................................................................... 19
2.4.1 Prognosis ............................................................................................. 21
2.5 Yolk Sac Tumor .............................................................................................. 22
2.6 Gonadoblastoma ............................................................................................. 24
2.7 Embryonal Carcinoma .................................................................................... 26
2.8 Polyembryoma ................................................................................................ 27
2.9 Dysgerminoma and Choriocarcinoma ............................................................ 27
References ................................................................................................................ 28
3 Non-Germ-Cell Gonadal Tumors ......................................................................... 31
3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 31
3.2 Leukemic Infiltration of the Infant Testis ....................................................... 32
3.3 Follicular Cysts of the Ovary .......................................................................... 33
3.4 Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor ...................................................................... 33
3.5 Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors ............................................................................ 34
References ................................................................................................................ 35
4 Soft Tissue Tumors ................................................................................................. 37
4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 37
4.2 Vascular Conditions ........................................................................................ 40
4.2.1 Hemangioma ....................................................................................... 40
4.2.2 Capillary Hemangioma ....................................................................... 40
4.2.3 Cavernous Hemangioma ..................................................................... 41
4.2.4 Infantile Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma .................................... 42
4.2.5 Tufted Angioma .................................................................................. 43
4.2.6 Malignant Vascular Tumors ................................................................ 43
4.2.7 Lymphangioma .................................................................................... 44
4.2.8 Vascular Malformations ...................................................................... 45
xvi Contents
4.3 Fibrous Connective Tissue (Myofibroblastic) Tumors ................................... 46
4.3.1 Fibromatosis ........................................................................................ 47
4.3.2 Gardner Fibroma ................................................................................. 48
4.3.3 Digital Fibromatosis (Recurring Digital Fibroma) ............................. 49
4.3.4 Torticollis ............................................................................................ 49
4.3.5 Myofibromatosis ................................................................................. 49
4.3.6 Granular Cell Tumor ........................................................................... 50
4.3.7 Fibrous Hamartoma of Infancy ........................................................... 52
4.3.8 Giant-Cell Fibroblastoma .................................................................... 53
4.3.9 Infantile (Congenital) Fibrosarcoma ................................................... 53
4.3.10 Nodular (Proliferative) Fasciitis .......................................................... 60
4.3.11 Cranial Fasciitis ................................................................................... 62
4.3.12 Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor ................................................. 62
4.4 Fibrohistiocytic Tumors .................................................................................. 63
4.4.1 Fibrous Histiocytoma .......................................................................... 65
4.4.2 Angiomatoid Fibrous Histiocytoma .................................................... 65
4.4.3 Juvenile Xanthogranuloma .................................................................. 65
4.5 Skeletal Muscle Tumors ................................................................................. 72
4.5.1 Rhabdomyoma .................................................................................... 72
4.5.2 Rhabdomyosarcoma ............................................................................ 72
4.6 Rhabdoid Tumor ............................................................................................. 73
4.7 Adipose Tissue Tumors .................................................................................. 74
4.7.1 Lipoblastoma ....................................................................................... 74
4.8 Peripheral Nervous System Tumors ............................................................... 76
4.8.1 Neurofibroma ...................................................................................... 76
4.9 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) ................................................... 78
4.9.1 Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy ................................... 80
4.10 Miscellaneous Soft Tissue Tumors ................................................................. 80
4.10.1 Triton Tumor ....................................................................................... 80
4.10.2 Polyphenotypic Small Cell Tumor ...................................................... 82
References ................................................................................................................ 83
5 Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions of the Skin ................................................ 87
5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 87
5.2 Vascular Conditions ........................................................................................ 90
5.2.1 Hemangioma ....................................................................................... 90
5.2.2 Macular Stains ..................................................................................... 92
5.2.3 Syndromes Associated with Vascular Conditions ............................... 92
5.2.4 Hemangioma Variants ......................................................................... 93
5.2.5 Lymphangioma .................................................................................... 94
5.3 Epidermal Birthmarks ..................................................................................... 94
5.3.1 Epidermal Nevus ................................................................................. 94
5.3.2 Becker’s Nevus (Becker’s Melanosis) ................................................. 95
5.3.3 Sebaceous Nevus ................................................................................. 95
5.4 Cutaneous Hamartomas .................................................................................. 96
5.4.1 Smooth Muscle Hamartoma ................................................................ 96
5.4.2 Nevus Lipomatosus ............................................................................. 96
5.5 Melanocytic Nevi ............................................................................................ 96
5.5.1 Pigmented Nevus................................................................................. 96
5.5.2 Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevi .................................................... 97
5.5.3 Malignant Melanoma .......................................................................... 99
5.5.4 Neurocutaneous Melanosis ................................................................. 100
Contents xvii
5.6 Neurofibromatosis ........................................................................................... 101
5.7 Tuberous Sclerosis .......................................................................................... 101
5.7.1 Infantile Digital Fibromatosis ............................................................. 102
5.7.2 Fibrous Hamartoma of Infancy ........................................................... 102
5.7.3 Papilloma ............................................................................................. 102
5.8 Tumors and Tumor-Like Infiltrations of the Skin ........................................... 102
5.8.1 Leukemia ............................................................................................. 102
5.8.2 Neuroblastoma .................................................................................... 102
5.8.3 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis ............................................................. 104
5.8.4 Juvenile Xanthogranuloma .................................................................. 104
5.8.5 Rhabdomyosarcoma ............................................................................ 106
5.8.6 Rhabdoid Tumor ................................................................................. 107
5.8.7 Urticaria Pigmentosa (Mast Cell Disease) .......................................... 108
References ................................................................................................................ 108
6 Neuroblastoma ....................................................................................................... 111
6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 111
6.2 Incidence ......................................................................................................... 111
6.3 Clinical Findings ............................................................................................. 111
6.4 Diagnostic Tests .............................................................................................. 121
6.5 Genetic Factors ............................................................................................... 121
6.6 Pathology ........................................................................................................ 122
6.7 Spontaneous Regression ................................................................................. 127
6.8 Neuroblastoma In Situ .................................................................................... 127
6.9 Ganglioneuroma ............................................................................................. 128
6.10 Prognosis ......................................................................................................... 128
References ................................................................................................................ 129
7 Leukemia ................................................................................................................ 131
7.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 131
7.2 Incidence ......................................................................................................... 131
7.3 Hematopoiesis ................................................................................................. 131
7.4 Clinical Features ............................................................................................. 132
7.5 Leukemia Occurring in Infants with Chromosomal Anomalies,
Syndromes, and Malformations ...................................................................... 133
7.6 Differential Diagnosis ..................................................................................... 135
7.7 Diagnosis of Leukemia ................................................................................... 139
7.8 Pathology ........................................................................................................ 142
7.9 Prognosis ......................................................................................................... 146
References ................................................................................................................ 146
8 Histiocytoses ........................................................................................................... 149
8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 149
8.2 Ontogeny of the Monophagocytic System ...................................................... 150
8.3 Classification of Histiocytoses ........................................................................ 151
8.4 Dendritic Cell Disorders ................................................................................. 151
8.4.1 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis ............................................................. 151
8.4.2 Juvenile Xanthogranuloma .................................................................. 155
8.5 Macrophage-Related Disorders ...................................................................... 155
8.5.1 Hemophagocytic Syndromes .............................................................. 155
8.5.2 Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy ......................... 158
8.6 Malignant-Related Disorders .......................................................................... 159
8.6.1 Malignant Histiocytoses ...................................................................... 159
8.6.2 Acute Monocytic Leukemia ................................................................ 159
xviii Contents
8.7 Prognosis ......................................................................................................... 160
References ................................................................................................................ 160
9 Brain Tumors .......................................................................................................... 163
9.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 163
9.1.1 Incidence ............................................................................................. 163
9.1.2 Association of Brain Tumors with Heritable Disorders
and Other Conditions .......................................................................... 164
9.1.3 Clinical Findings ................................................................................. 165
9.1.4 Pathology ............................................................................................. 165
9.1.5 Cytogenetics ........................................................................................ 166
9.2 Teratoma ......................................................................................................... 166
9.3 Astrocytoma .................................................................................................... 168
9.4 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors ................................................................ 172
9.5 Medulloblastoma ............................................................................................ 177
9.6 Cerebral PNET ................................................................................................ 177
9.7 Gangliocytoma ................................................................................................ 178
9.8 Ganglioglioma ................................................................................................ 178
9.9 Infantile Desmoplastic Ganglioglioma ........................................................... 178
9.10 Ependymoma .................................................................................................. 180
9.11 Choroid Plexus Papilloma .............................................................................. 182
9.12 Choroid Plexus Carcinoma ............................................................................. 185
9.13 Oligodendroglioma ......................................................................................... 186
9.14 Craniopharyngioma ........................................................................................ 187
9.15 Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor ................................................................ 188
9.16 Medulloepithelioma ........................................................................................ 188
9.17 Meningioma .................................................................................................... 189
9.18 Vascular Malformations of the Brain .............................................................. 189
9.19 Prognosis for Infants with Brain Tumors ........................................................ 192
9.20 Miscellaneous Craniofacial Anomalies .......................................................... 193
References ................................................................................................................ 193
10 Tumors of the Eye .................................................................................................. 197
10.1 Retinoblastoma ............................................................................................... 197
10.1.1 Cytogenetics ........................................................................................ 197
10.1.2 Clinical Findings ................................................................................. 197
10.1.3 Differential Diagnosis ......................................................................... 198
10.1.4 Spontaneous Regression ...................................................................... 198
10.1.5 Pathology ............................................................................................. 199
10.1.6 Prognosis ............................................................................................. 203
10.2 Trilateral Retinoblastoma ............................................................................... 203
10.3 Medulloepithelioma ........................................................................................ 204
10.4 Astrocytic Tumors of the Retina ..................................................................... 204
10.5 Neurofibromatosis ........................................................................................... 205
10.6 Optic Glioma .................................................................................................. 206
10.7 Orbital Tumors ................................................................................................ 206
References ................................................................................................................ 207
11 Renal Tumors ......................................................................................................... 209
11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 209
11.2 Wilms’ Tumor ................................................................................................. 216
11.2.1 Pathology ............................................................................................. 216
11.3 Nephrogenic Rests and Nephroblastomatosis ................................................ 221
11.4 Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma ................................................................. 222
11.4.1 Pathology ............................................................................................. 222
Contents xix
11.5 Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney ...................................................................... 228
11.5.1 Pathology ............................................................................................. 228
11.6 Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney .................................................................. 229
11.6.1 Pathology ............................................................................................. 229
11.7 Cystic Conditions of the Kidney ..................................................................... 230
11.8 Ossifying Renal Tumor of Infancy ................................................................. 233
References ................................................................................................................ 234
12 Liver Tumors .......................................................................................................... 237
12.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 237
12.2 Hemangioma ................................................................................................... 238
12.3 Mesenchymal Hamartoma .............................................................................. 241
12.4 Hepatoblastoma .............................................................................................. 244
12.5 Primary Sarcomas of the Liver ....................................................................... 250
12.6 Germ Cell Tumors .......................................................................................... 252
12.7 Liver Cell Adenoma and Focal Nodular Hyperplasia ..................................... 252
12.8 Miscellaneous Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions ......................................... 253
References ................................................................................................................ 256
13 Adrenocortical Tumors .......................................................................................... 259
13.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 259
13.2 Incidence ......................................................................................................... 259
13.3 Clinical Findings ............................................................................................. 260
13.4 Adrenal Cortical Adenoma ............................................................................. 261
13.5 Adrenocortical Carcinoma .............................................................................. 265
13.6 Adrenal Cortical Hyperplasia ......................................................................... 266
13.6.1 Congenital Adrenal Cortical Hyperplasia Associated
with Adrenogenital Syndrome ............................................................ 267
13.6.2 Clinical Findings ................................................................................. 267
13.6.3 Pathology ............................................................................................. 268
13.6.4 Adrenocortical Hyperplasia Associated
with Cushing’s Syndrome ................................................................... 269
13.6.5 Clinical Findings ................................................................................. 269
13.6.6 Pathological Findings .......................................................................... 269
13.7 Adrenal Cortical Cytomegaly ......................................................................... 269
13.8 Adrenal Cyst ................................................................................................... 270
References ................................................................................................................ 270
14 Pancreatic Tumors ................................................................................................. 273
14.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 273
14.2 Endocrine Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Pancreas ...................... 273
14.2.1 Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia of the Islets of Langerhans .................. 273
14.2.2 Nesidioblastosis, Nesidioblastoma ...................................................... 273
14.2.3 Persistent Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia of Infancy...................... 275
14.2.4 Islet Cell Adenoma .............................................................................. 276
14.3 Exocrine Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Pancreas ........................ 277
14.3.1 Adenoma and Cystadenoma ................................................................ 277
14.3.2 Adenocarcinoma ................................................................................. 278
14.3.3 Pancreatoblastoma ............................................................................... 278
14.4 Miscellaneous Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions ......................................... 280
References ................................................................................................................ 280
15 Cardiac Tumors ...................................................................................................... 283
15.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 283
15.2 Cardiac Rhabdomyoma .................................................................................. 285
xx Contents
15.3 Pericardial and Cardiac Teratoma ................................................................. 287
15.4 Cardiac Fibroma ........................................................................................... 289
15.5 Cardiac Myxoma .......................................................................................... 289
15.6 Vascular Tumors ........................................................................................... 289
15.7 Oncocytic (“Histiocytoid”) Cardiomyopathy ............................................... 290
15.8 Miscellaneous Conditions ............................................................................. 290
References ................................................................................................................ 291
16 Salivary Gland Tumors.......................................................................................... 293
16.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 293
16.2 Sialoblastoma ................................................................................................ 295
16.3 Congenital Pleomorphic Adenoma (Salivary Gland Anlage Tumor) ........... 296
16.4 Miscellaneous Salivary Gland Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions .............. 296
References ................................................................................................................ 300
17 Lung Tumors and Tumor-like Conditions ........................................................... 301
17.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 301
17.2 Inflammatory Pseudotumor .......................................................................... 306
17.3 Fibromatoses (Myofibromatoses) ................................................................. 307
17.4 Vascular Conditions ...................................................................................... 307
17.5 Congenital Pulmonary Cystic Diseases ........................................................ 307
17.5.1 Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation ................................ 307
17.6 Laryngotracheal Papilloma ........................................................................... 308
17.7 Congenital Pulmonary Myofibroblastic Tumor ............................................ 309
17.8 Pleuropulmonary Blastoma .......................................................................... 310
17.9 Skeletal Muscle Tumors ............................................................................... 310
17.10 Peripheral Neuroectodermal Tumor of Thoracopulmonary Origin .............. 311
References ................................................................................................................ 312
18 Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions of Bones .................................................... 315
18.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 315
18.2 Chest Wall Hamartoma ................................................................................. 317
18.3 Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma .................................................... 319
18.4 Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone ............................................................................ 321
18.5 Enchondromatosis (Ollier’s Disease) ........................................................... 321
18.6 Congenital Generalized Fibromatosis (Infantile Myofibromatosis) ............. 323
18.7 Congenital Fibrosarcoma .............................................................................. 323
18.8 Ewing’s Sarcoma .......................................................................................... 323
18.9 Miscellaneous Conditions ............................................................................. 324
References ................................................................................................................ 326
Index ..................................................................................................................................... 327

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