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Principles of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology

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Autore: Bardale
Editore: Jaypee
Anno: 2011
Pagine: 564
ISBN: 9789350254936
Prezzo: 45,00€
I prezzi indicati possono subire variazioni poiché soggetti all'oscillazione dei cambi delle valute e/o agli aggiornamenti effettuati dagli Editori.
Principles of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology provides a comprehensive, step by step guide to the subject. Beginning with an introduction to legal procedures, medical jurisprudence and identification, the following chapters examine forensic methods for different causes of death, such as mechanical injury, road traffic accidents, firearm injuries, thermal injuries and asphyxia. Separate chapters are dedicated to DNA profiling and forensic osteology. Almost 1000 images and illustrations, as well as a number of mnemonics, have been included to assist learning.

Author information
MD; Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, India

ection A: Forensic Medicine
1. Legal Procedure............................................................................................... 3
• Courts 4
• Summons or Subpoena 6
• Medical Evidence 7
• Witnesses 9
• Procedure in Court 10
• Conduct of Doctor in the Court 11
2. Medical Jurisprudence................................................................................. 12
• Medical Council of India 12
• Ethical Aspects of Medical Practice 13
• Legal Aspects of Medical Practice 17
• Doctors and Medical Records 19
• Consent 20
• Medical Negligence 23
• Consumer Protection Act 28
• Biomedical Waste Management 29
• Ethics and Medical Research (Human Experimentation) 29
• Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics)
Regulations, 2002 31
3. Identification................................................................................................... 39
• Race 40
• Sex 40
• Age 45
• Age Estimation in Infants, Children and Adults Less than 25 Years 50
• Stature 67
4. Forensic Osteology......................................................................................... 85
• Skull 89
• Mandible 94
• Femur 96
• Tibia 98
• Fibula 98
• Humerus 99
• Radius 101
• Ulna 103
• Sternum 103
• Scapula 104
• Clavicle 106
• Pelvis and Hipbone 106
• Sacrum 110
Contents
xii Principles of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
5. DNA Profiling..................................................................................................... 113
• Basic Consideration 113
• Typing 114
• Application of DNA Profiling 116
• DNA Evidence 116
• Collection, Preservation and Forwarding of Sample 116
6. Medicolegal Autopsy............................................................................................ 119
• Autopsy Procedure 121
• Laboratory Investigations 123
• Fetal Autopsy 125
• Exhumation 126
• Postmortem Artefacts 127
7. Death and Changes after Death...................................................................... 132
• Types of Death 133
• Brain Death 133
• Death Certificate 135
• Apparent Death 136
• Modes of Death 137
• Manner of Death 137
• Changes after Death 138
• Immediate Changes after Death 138
• Early Changes after Death 139
• Cooling of Body 141
• Postmortem Lividity 143
• Changes in Muscle 147
• Decomposition 151
• Skeletonization 158
• Adipocere 159
• Mummification 161
• Forensic Entomology 162
• Sudden Death 164
8. Injury: General Considerations and Biophysics.............................................. 167
• Physics of Wounding (Biophysics of Injury) 168
9. Mechanical Injury............................................................................................... 171
• Abrasion 171
• Contusion 176
• Lacerated Wounds 182
• Incised Wound 185
• Chop Wound 188
• Stab Wounds (Puncture Wounds) 189
• Fractures 193
10. Firearm Injuries and Bomb Blast Injuries..................................................... 196
• Firearm Injuries 196
• Smooth Bore Firearm (Shotgun) 197
Contents xiii
• Rifled Firearm 201
• Wound Ballistics (Firearm Wounds) 205
• Injuries Caused by Rifled Firearms (Gunshot Wounds) 205
• Smooth Bore Firearm Injury (Shotgun Injuries) 213
• Autopsy Examination 216
• Explosion and Bomb Blast Injuries 217
11. Regional Injuries................................................................................................. 219
• Head Injury 219
• Scalp Injuries 219
• Injury to Skull 221
• Injury to Meninges and Brain 225
• Injury to Brain 231
• Injury to Spine and Spinal Cord 235
• Injury to Chest 236
• Injury to Abdomen 236
12. Road Traffic Accidents........................................................................................ 240
• Injuries to Pedestrian 240
• Injuries Sustained by Motorcyclist 241
• Injuries Sustained to Occupant of Vehicle 242
13. Injury: Medicolegal Considerations.................................................................. 246
• Weapons 252
• Injuries and Law 255
• Homicide 256
14. Thermal Injuries 258
• Exposure to Cold 258
• Exposure to Heat 259
• Burns 260
• Dry Heat Burns 261
• Scalds 273
• Injuries due to Electricity 273
• Lightning 280
15. Violent Asphyxia.................................................................................................. 284
• Anoxia 284
• Types and Causes of Asphyxia 285
• Pathophysiology of Asphyxia 286
• Stages of Asphyxia 286
• Signs of Asphyxia 287
• Hanging 288
• Strangulation 296
• Ligature Strangulation 296
• Throttling (Manual Strangulation) 299
• Hyoid Bone Fracture 300
• Suffocation 301
• Smothering 301
• Gagging 302
xiv Principles of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
• Choking 303
• Traumatic Asphyxia 304
• Drowning 304
16. Virginity, sexual offenses and Perversions.................................................... 314
• Virginity 314
• Signs of Virginity 314
• Rape 317
• Incest 323
• Adultery 323
• Unnatural Sexual Offenses 323
• Sodomy 323
• Lesbianism 325
• Buccal Coitus 325
• Bestiality 326
• Sexual Paraphilias 326
• Sex-linked Offenses 328
17. Impotence, Sterility and Sterilization............................................................... 329
• Impotence 329
• Frigidity 330
• Sterility 331
• Sterilization 331
18. Pregnancy and Delivery..................................................................................... 334
• Pregnancy 334
• Diagnosis of Pregnancy in Living 334
• Period of Gestation 340
• Delivery 341
• Medicolegal Importance 341
• Evidences of Delivery in Dead 342
19. Abortion and Medical Termination of Pregnancy.......................................... 345
• Abortion 345
• Criminal Abortion 346
• Justifiable Abortion (Therapeutic) 351
20. Infant Deaths and Female Feticide.................................................................. 353
• Infanticide 353
• Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) 359
• Battered Baby Syndrome 360
• Cinderella Syndrome 361
• Shaken Baby Syndrome 361
• Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy 362
• Female Feticide 362
• PCPNDT Act 2003 362
21. Legitimacy, Paternity and Medicolegal Aspects of Marriage Annulment.. 364
• Legitimacy 364
• Paternity 364
Contents xv
22. Assisted Reproduction.................................................................................... 366
• Artificial Insemination 366
• The Delhi Artificial Insemination (Human) Act 1995 367
• Semen Banking 367
• Posthumous Reproduction 367
• Stem Cell Research 368
• Surrogate Birth and Surrogate Motherhood 368
• Cloning 368
23. S tarvation......................................................................................................... 370
• Malnutrition 370
• Starvation 370
24. Euthanasia........................................................................................................ 373
• Views in Favor of Euthanasia 373
• Views against Euthanasia 374
• Euthanasia: Status in India 374
25. Human Rights, Torture and Medical Ethics 375
• Introduction 375
• Torture 375
26. Medicolegal Aspects of AIDS.......................................................................... 377
27. Anesthetic and Operative Deaths.................................................................. 379
• Classification of Anesthetic Patients 379
• Death due to Surgical Procedure 380
• Autopsy and Investigation 380
28. Medicolegal Aspects of Embalming............................................................... 382
• Composition of Embalming Fluid 382
• Medicolegal Aspects of Embalming 382
29. Forensic Psychiatry......................................................................................... 384
• Disorders 385
• Psychosis and Neurosis 389
• Mental Health Act 1987 390
• Civil Responsibilities 392
• Criminal Responsibilities 393
30. Trace Evidences............................................................................................... 396
• Blood and Bloodstains 396
• Semen 400
• Saliva 402
• Hairs and Fibers 403
31. Forensic Science Laboratory.......................................................................... 407
• Polygraphy 407
• Narcoanalysis 408
• Brain Fingerprinting 409
xvi Principles of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
Section B: Toxicology
32. Toxicology: General Considerations..................................................................... 413
• Classification 414
• Diagnosis of Poisoning 415
• Management 425
• Antidotes 427
• Diagnosis in Dead (Autopsy Findings) 430
33. Toxicology: Medicolegal Considerations.............................................................. 432
34. Corrosive Poisons.................................................................................................... 437
• Inorganic Acids 437
• Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) 438
• Nitric Acid 438
• Hydrochloric Acid 439
• Vitriolage 439
• Acetic Acid 439
• Carbolic Acid 439
• Oxalic Acid 441
• Corrosive Alkalis 442
35. Inorganic Irritants: Non-metallic Poisons............................................................. 445
• Iodine 445
• Phosphorus 446
36. Inorganic Irritants: Metallic Poisons.................................................................... 449
• Copper 449
• Thallium 451
• Arsenic 451
• Mercury 455
• Lead (Sisha) 459
• Iron 462
• Zinc (JASAT) 463
• Antimony 464
• Metal Fume fever 464
37. Organic Irritants: Plants and Vegetables............................................................. 467
• Poisonous Parts of Plant 467
• Toxic Principle in Plant 467
• Abrus 467
• Castor 469
• Croton 470
• Capsicum 471
• Calotropis 472
• Marking Nut 473
• Plumbago 474
• Colocynth 475
• Ergot 476
Contents xvii
38. Organic Irritants: Animal Bites and Stings................................................ 477
• Snake 477
• Features of Common Poisonous Snakes 478
• Venom Composition 480
• Clinical Features 481
• Scorpion 484
• Bees 486
• Wasp 486
39. Mechanical Irritants......................................................................................... 488
40. Pesticides............................................................................................................ 490
• Organophosphorus Compounds 490
• Organochlorines 493
• Carbamate 495
• Pyrethrum, Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids 496
• Paraquat 497
• Aluminium Phosphide 497
41. Cardiac Poisons................................................................................................ 500
• Tobacco 500
• Common Oleander 501
• Yellow Oleander 502
• Aconite 503
• Hydrocyanic Acid 505
42. Somniferous Poisons........................................................................................ 508
• Opium 508
43. Inebriant Poisons.............................................................................................. 511
• Alcohol 511
• Alcohol Intoxication 514
• Drunkenness 516
• Alcoholism 520
• Methyl Alcohol 525
44. Deliriant Poisons............................................................................................... 528
• Datura 528
• Cannabis 530
• Cocaine 532
45. Spinal Poisons................................................................................................... 535
• Strychnine 535
46. Peripheral Nerve Poisons................................................................................ 538
• Curare 538
• Conium Maculatum 539
xviii Principles of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
47. Asphyxiants.................................................................................................... 541
• Carbon Monoxide 541
• Carbon Dioxide 543
• Hydrogen Sulfide 543
• Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) 544
48. Food Poisoning.............................................................................................. 546
• Food Poisoning by Bacteria 547
49. Drug Dependence and Abuse...................................................................... 549
50. War Gases...................................................................................................... 552
• Lachrimators (Tear Gases) 552
Index................................................................................................................ 555

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